Optimize your research

Used terms

There are two types of terms: Single Terms and Phrases.

A Single Term is a single word such as "test" or "hello".

A Phrase is a group of words surrounded by double quotes such as "hello dolly".

Multiple terms can be combined together with Boolean operators to form a more complex query (see below).

Fields

If you search for word in a title, you can enter:
title:"word in the title"

If you want to combine this with a search on a word that will be in content of the article :
title:" word in the title" AND word2

The results would be articles containing the word "hello" in their title and the word "test" in their content.

Wildcard Searches

If you are not sure of the spelling of the word or if you have no clue if it will be in its singular or plural form, you can use the wildcard searches

Replace one or several letters

To perform a single character wildcard search use the "?" symbol. The "?" added to the searched word enable to do the research when the spelling of the word is unknown because of one letter. For example, if you are looking for "text" or "test", you will write "te?t"

To perform a multiple character wildcard search use the "*" symbol.  The "*" added to the searched word can replace several letters. For example if you are looking for "test", "tests" or "tester", you will write "test*"

Note: You cannot use a * or ? symbol as the first character of a search.

Fuzzy Searches

To do a fuzzy search use the tilde, "~", symbol at the end of a Single word Term. For example to search for a term similar in spelling to "roam" use the fuzzy search:

roam~

This search will find terms like foam and roams. An additional parameter can specify the required similarity. The value is between 0 and 1,, and with a value closer to 1, only terms with a higher similarity will be matched. For example:

roam~0.8

The default value is 0.5 if the parameter is not given.

Boolean Operators

  • OR : The OR operator is the default conjunction operator. This means that if there is no Boolean operator between two terms, the OR operator is used. The OR operator links two terms and finds a matching document if either of the terms exist in a document. This is equivalent to a union using sets.

If you write test OR texte , the results will be articles containing the word "texte", articles containing the word "test", and articles containing the words "texte" and "test"

  • AND : The AND operator matches documents where both terms exist anywhere in the text of a single document. This is equivalent to an intersection using sets. test AND texte will result to articles containing the words "test" and "text" (but no articles containing only one of those two words)
  • AND NOT or ! : The AND NOT operator excludes documents that contain the term after AND NOT. This is equivalent to a difference using sets.  "content word" AND NOT "test" will result to articles containing "content word" and not containing the word "test"+
  • Combination of boolean operators or grouping: parentheses can be added to group clauses to form sub queries. This can be very useful if you want to control the boolean logic for a query.  For example, if you are looking for articles containing "letter" and the word "book"  or "tome", you will write : letter AND (book OR tome).